Heterologous expression of mutated eburicol 14 alpha-demethylase CYP51 proteins of Mycosphaerella graminicola to assess effects on azole fungicide sensitivity and intrinsic protein function. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 76 , — The Manual of Biocontrol Agents. British Crop Protection Council. Pest Management Science 56 , — Increased crop productivity from renewable inputs — a scientific challenge for the 21st century. The Fusarium graminearum genome reveals a link between localized polymorphism and pathogen specialization.
Science , — Prospects for exploiting herbivore-induced plant volatiles to enhance biological control in maize. De Lacy Costello , B. The development of a sensor system for the early detection of soft rot in stored potato tubers. Measurement Science and Technology 11 , — De Vleesschauwer , D. Restoring a maize root signal that attracts insect-killing nematodes to control a major pest. Functional metagenomic profiling of nine biomes. Nature , — Identifying druggable disease-modifying gene products. Current Opinion in Chemical Biology 13 , — Post-harvest Losses Aggravate Hunger: News item of 2 November Radically rethinking agriculture for the 21st century.
Micro-evolutionary change in relation to insecticide resistance in the peach-potato aphid , Myzus persicae. Ecological Entomology 1 Suppl. Gaeumannomyces graminis , the take-all fungus and its relatives. Molecular Plant Pathology 5 , — NIM1 overexpression in Arabidopsis potentiates plant disease resistance and results in enhanced effectiveness of fungicides. Molecular Plant—Microbe Interactions 14 , — New Phytologist , 27 — Epidemiological models for invasion and persistence of pathogens. Annual Review of Phytopathology 46 , — Mechanisms influencing the evolution of resistance to Qo inhibitor fungicides.
Pest Management Science 58 , — Contrasting mechanisms of defense against biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens. Annual Review of Phytopathology 43 , — Benzothiadiazole, a novel class of inducers of systemic acquired resistance, activates gene expression and disease resistance in wheat. The Plant Cell 8 , — Adaptation and invasiveness of Western Corn Rootworm: Annual Review of Entomology 54 , — The promise of insect genomics. Pest Management Science 63 , — Genome sequence and analysis of the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans.
Current Opinions in Biotechnology 14 , — Invertebrate biodiversity affects predator fitness and hence potential to control pests in crops. Biological Control 51 , — Reduced growth and seed set following chemical induction of pathogen defence: Journal of Ecology 88 , — A consensus yeast metabolic network reconstruction obtained from a community approach to systems biology.
Nature Biotechnology 26 , — High resolution melting analysis of cDNA-derived PCR amplicons for rapid and cost-effective identification of novel alleles in barley. Theoretical and Applied Genetics , — Synthesis of 2S, 7S -dibutyroxynonane, the sex pheromone of the orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana Gehin Diptera: Cecidomyiidae , by diasteroselective silicon-tethered ring-closing metathesis. Tetrahedron Letters 48 , — New genetic opportunities from legume intercrops for controlling Striga spp.
Plant immunity: unravelling the complexity of plant responses to biotic stresses
Pest Management Science 65 , — Fitness cost of virulence differs between the AvrLm1 and AvrLm4 loci in Leptosphaeria maculans phoma stem canker of oilseed rape. Fitness cost associated with loss of the AvrLm4 avirulence function in Leptosphaeria maculans phoma stem canker of oilseed rape. European Journal of Plant Pathology , 77 — The plant immune system. Identification and functional characterization of effectors in expressed sequence tags from various life cycle stages of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida.
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A catalogue of the effector secretome of plant pathogenic Oomycetes. Annual Review of Phytopathology 44 , 41 — Crop Protection 27 , — Chemical ecology and conservation biological control. Biological Control 45 , — Transgenic plants as vital components of integrated pest management. Pesticide Science 55 , — Comparative genomics reveals mobile pathogenicity chromosomes in Fusarium. Genetically engineered resistance to Fusarium head blight in wheat by expression of Arabidopsis NPR1.
Molecular Plant—Microbe Interactions 19 , — Intelligent electronic nose system for basal stem rot disease detection. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 66 , — Plant disease diagnostic capabilities and networks. Annual Review of Phytopathology 47 , 15 — Innate immune responses activated in Arabidopsis roots by microbe-associated molecular patterns. Plant Cell 22 , — Evidence for increased aggressiveness in a recent widespread strain of Puccinia striiformis f. Phytopathology 99 , 89 — Signal amplification by rolling circle amplification on DNA microarrays.
Nucleic Acids Research 29 , e Resistance of insect pests to neonicotinoid insecticides: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 58 , — Detection of microorganisms using biosensors-A smarter way towards detection techniques. Biosensors and Bioelectronics 25 , — Transgenic organisms — time for conceptual diversification.
Nature Biotechnology 21 , — PAMP-triggered basal immunity in plants. Advances in Botanical Research 51 , 1 — Applications of genome-scale metabolic reconstructions. Molecular Systems Biology 5 , Crop losses to pests. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge , 31 — Induced disease resistance in plants by chemicals. European Journal of Plant Pathology , 19 — Plant volatiles as a defense against insect herbivores. Plant Physiology , — Optimal strategies for the eradication of Asiatic Citrus Canker in heterogeneous host landscapes. Phytopathology 99 , — Loss of susceptibility as a novel breeding strategy for durable and broad-spectrum resistance.
Molecular Breeding 25 , 1 — Mapping and diagnostic marker development for soil-borne cereal mosaic virus resistance in bread wheat. Molecular Breeding 23 , — Doubled haploids, markers and QTL analysis in vegetable brassicas. Euphytica , — Amplification of a cytochrome P gene is associated with resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides in the aphid Myzus persicae.
PLoS Genetics 6 , e The Arabidopsis AtNPR1 inversely modulates defense responses against fungal, bacterial, or viral pathogens while conferring hypersensitvity to abiotic stresses in transgenic rice. Molecular Plant—Microbe Interactions 21 , — Trends in Plant Science 11 , 40 — Chemical Reviews , — RNAi and functional genomics in plant parasitic nematodes. Deep space and hidden depths: Biocontrol 55 , 1 — 6.
Science and the Sustainable Intensification of Global Agriculture. A review of wireless sensor technologies and applications in agriculture and food industry: Sensors 9 , — Rhizosphere engineering and management for sustainable agriculture. Plant and Soil , — Molecular evolution of the major chemosensory gene families in insects. Heredity , — Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry 17 , — The products of a single maize sesquiterpene synthase form a volatile defense signal that attracts natural enemies of maize herbivores.
Do cisgenic plants warrant less stringent oversight? Nature Biotechnology 24 , Resources for virus-induced gene silencing in the grasses. Relationship between saprotrophic growth in soil of different biotypes of Pochonia chlamydosporia and the infection of nematode eggs. Annals of Applied Biology , — Will stem rust destroy the world's wheat crop?
Advances in Agronomy 98 , — Effect of leaf rust resistance gene Lr34 on grain yield and agronomic traits of spring wheat. Crop Science 37 , — The challenge of providing plant pest diagnostic services for Africa. Plant-pathogen arms races at the molecular level. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 3 , — Biodiversity as a source of anticancer drugs. Current Drug Targets 7 , — Breeding technologies to increase crop production in a changing world.
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Effects of foliar application of harpin protein against Verticillium dahliae on pepper grown in greenhouse conditions. Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment 7 , — The International Aphid Genomics Consortium Genome sequence of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. PLoS Biology 8 , e Tribolium Genome Sequencing Consortium The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum.
Network properties of robust immunity in plants. PLoS Genetics 5 , 12 e Van Der Ent , S. In their review, Bentham et al. Important gaps in our knowledge between animal and plant systems are highlighted, with focus on the need for more structural information for plant NLRs. Current knowledge of protein crystal structures is limited to only N-terminal domains and an integrated decoy domain. Similarities and differences between plant and animal NLRs are used to derive a plausible model for plant NLR activation, based on binding by an activating elicitor and ATP.
The resultant structural rearrangement of the NLR is followed by signalling through a co-operative process with the formation of a resistosome structure Nishimura and Dangl, With current advances in methodologies in structural biology, determination of full-length structures of plant NLRs will increase understanding of regulation and activation, and enable design of NLRs with new specificities. Plant lectins comprise proteins that specifically bind carbohydrates during essential plant processes.
Division into subfamilies can be made according to conserved carbohydrate recognition domains van Damme et al. The Nictaba-like family groups proteins with a domain showing homology to the Nicotiana tabacum agglutinin, or Nictaba. Nictaba-like lectins appear to act as signalling molecules that alter gene expression in response to biotic stresses Chen et al. The research conducted by Van Holle et al.
Nictaba-like genes are likely to play diverse roles in plant development and defence. The cytokinins are N 6 -substituted adenine derivatives that were first discovered to be involved in cell division regulation in plants.
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These phytohormones were subsequently recognized to be involved in plant stress tolerance Argueso et al. While moderate levels of cytokinins have been shown to create favourable physiological conditions for biotrophic pathogen development Argueso et al. The review by Albrecht and Argueso focuses on current research that highlights fitness costs associated with plant defence activation against pathogens. Cytokinin-regulated physiological and molecular processes are associated with plant growth and response to pathogens, and indicate a role for this class of phytohormone in regulation of growth—defence trade-off in plants.
Uncoupling of defence activation from growth reduction offers considerable potential for the development of engineered crops displaying broad-spectrum, durable resistance to biotrophic pathogens, with reduced yield penalties. Papers in this category focus on aspects of the multilayered plant antiviral immune system, with emphasis on recent advances in understanding of antiviral innate immunity, together with viral proteins that modulate antiviral defence mechanisms.
In their review, Calil et al. The authors highlight both the potential of the plant immune system for the development of broad-spectrum tolerance to plant viruses across distinct plant species, as well important gaps that remain today in our understanding of plant—virus interaction dynamics, from virus-derived PAMPs and effectors, to PTI and ETI host receptors. Integration of antiviral innate immunity, systemic acquired resistance SAR and RNA interference RNAi defence layers will enable development of durable defence against plant viruses. They discuss the effects of each viral component on the modulation of host defence responses, through mechanisms involving hormonal imbalance, innate immunity modulation and antiviral RNA silencing.
Individual and combined effects of viral-encoded proteins contribute to viral replication and movement in the host plant. Phytoplasmas are obligate biotrophic plant pathogenic bacteria that replicate intracellularly in phloem sieve elements of infected plants. Infecting a diversity of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous wild, ornamental and crop plant species, they cause significant crop yield losses worldwide. Symptoms of phytoplasma-infected plants indicate modulation of fundamental plant developmental processes, which include flower development and fruit production.
Whole-genome sequences for phytoplasmas are fundamental for the identification of pathogen genes responsible for developmental changes and subsequent yield losses in affected host plants. In a study by Orlovskis et al. In other pathosystems, these proteins have been shown to activate host defence responses, regulate pathogen attachment to host cells and activate effector secretion systems.
Polymorphisms observed in the lipoprotein and exporter genes in MBSP isolates are associated with lateral branching organ proliferation symptoms in maize. In the study conducted by Powell and colleagues , next-generation sequencing approaches are employed to assess global gene expression responses in wheat genotypes moderately and highly susceptible to Fusarium pseudograminearum , causal agent of Fusarium crown rot.
The fungal mycotoxin deoxynivalenol is also shown to play an important role in virulence. Sugarcane smut, caused by the facultative biotrophic pathogen Sporisorium scitamineum , is a disease in sugarcane, occurring across all global production areas. In their study, Marques et al. Induced resistance in plants is characterized by a latent defence response which, following induction, is activated only at a later moment, upon attack by a pathogen or insect herbivore Kue, ; Pieterse et al. This induced state of resistance is expressed systemically at the whole-plant level, not only in plant tissues exposed to the inducer Durrant and Dong, Both biological and chemical agents have been employed as inducers, as potential alternatives to agrochemicals.
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Differential defence responses against Oidium neolycopersici fungal infection are observed in Solanum genotypes contrasting in resistance, with the involvement of ethylene ET -dependent signalling pathways suggested in the BABA-induced resistance. Papers in this category examine the molecular components involved in complex compatible and incompatible interaction between plants and nematode pathogens. Root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne spp.
As information is limited with regard to both host plant resistance responses and root cell development modulation during root knot nematode infection, particularly in the case of monocotyledonous plants, the characterization of both defence responses that may limit parasitism and the identification of potential effector-targeted host genes will be far reaching in the development of genetic improvement-based control measures for such nematodes. Nematode penetration and establishment of galls in root tissues is reduced in this species when compared with observations in a susceptible Oryza sativa cultivar.
Catalogued changes in gene expression during host—pathogen interactions reveal differential upregulation of candidate genes for nematode resistance in the resistant line that include ETI NLRs, as well as genes involved in downstream defence responses, phenylpropanoid and phytohormone biosynthetic pathways. While there has been considerable focus on host mechanisms that are activated during incompatible plant—nematode interactions, our understanding of how root-knot nematodes induce or suppress host genes during infection and giant cell development in compatible interactions remains limited.
These specialized feeding cells are the exclusive nutritive source for all stages of the nematode life cycle. Gillet and colleagues provide an overview of the molecular interplay in plant—nematode interactions, with particular attention given to the early stages of infection and events that occur prior to nematode establishment of successful infection. The authors discuss how PPNs probably orchestrate cytoprotection to resist plant immune responses, focusing on the potential roles played by PPN heterologues of Caenorhabditis elegans dauer abnormal formation DAF and SKN transcription factors in overcoming the oxidative stress conditions which are typically produced by the host plant during nematode invasion and migration.
As these transcription factor genes may play pivotal roles during parasitism, the authors suggest strategies for control of PPNs through RNAi approaches. UV fluorescence microscopy-based examination of root sections of Musa acuminata infected with Meloidogyne incognita displaying adult female and giant cells in the central cylinder. GC, giant cell; N, nematode.
As perennial woody plants, Citrus sp. In their review, Dalio et al. Emphasis is given to the economically important diseases tristeza, psorosis, citrus variegated chlorosis, citrus canker, huanglongbing HLB , brown spot, post-bloom, anthracnose, gummosis and citrus root rot. Candidate host genes are recommended for development of disease-resistant genotypes through conventional breeding, biotechnology-based approaches for development of transgenic or cisgenic citrus, and via genome editing and host-induced gene silencing.
Plant defensins are small basic cysteine-rich peptides that occur throughout the plant kingdom. In their study, Weiller et al. Border-like cells are thought to provide protection to root meristems in a similar manner to classical root border cells. The authors propose that the presence of the Hc-AFP3 defensin peptides in the border-like cells indicates a potentially important role for these cells in root protection.
Upon biotic or abiotic stress challenge, plants can emit a blend of volatile organic compounds. Terpenoid volatiles, which are low molecular weight compounds derived from five-carbon building blocks of isopentenyl diphosphate IPP , play important roles in direct and indirect defences, priming responses within the plant and to neighbouring plants. Plant symbiotic associations involving arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi can increase host secondary metabolism and alter the concentration and composition of terpenoids.
In this review, Sharma and colleagues discuss the roles of terpernoids in plant defences, with focus on defence against insect herbivores. The importance of mycorrhizal plants in alteration of terpenoid production is highlighted, with prospects outlined for sustainable management of pests in agricultural systems through bioengineering of terpenoid-producing plants. Plant assimilates, that can be defined as organic carbon and nitrogen, are of fundamental importance for plant development and productivity Ruan et al.
Based on their findings, they observe re-greening and maintenance of the cotyledon as a sink tissue during pathogen infection, and consider this to occur through redistribution of sucrose that involves interaction between cytokinins and modulation of a set of PsCWINV and PsSWEETS genes. Plant soluble sugars have been implicated in plant defence against fungal pathogens. In this context, Lecompte et al. The results indicate distinct roles for host glucose and fructose in defence response to infection by B.
Plants require nitrogen for growth, development and defence against abiotic and biotic stresses. An extensive review is presented by Mur and colleagues on the agricultural impact of nitrogen nutrition on disease development. Plant disease resistance based upon PTI, ETI or the mobilization of nutrients away from sites of infection is shown to be potentially compromised under different soil nitrogen availability. The authors highlight how nitrogen content and form also play essential roles in defensive primary and secondary metabolism and nitric oxide-mediated defence signalling events.
Meeting the demands for food supply in the context of the current rapid global population increase is a major challenge for sustainable agriculture, with global losses across crop species due to pre-harvest diseases today estimated at approx. While plants and their pathogens are continuously coevolving, continuous monoculture planting of cultivars can favour the emergence of virulent pathogen populations that can overcome disease resistance.
Agricultural practices can also facilitate pathogen movement to new areas, exacerbated by human migration and movement of contaminated germplasm. The global tendencies for reduction in dependency on pesticide regimes for disease control mean that the development and deployment of pest- and disease-resistant crop cultivars will probably play an ever-increasingly important role in the intensification of sustainable agriculture.
As such, continued progress in plant immunity research has far-reaching implications for global sustainable agriculture.
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This special issue showcases exciting research across multiple areas related to pathogen sensing and plant immune response, with molecules characterized across numerous pathosystems. Furthering our understanding of the plant immune system is fundamental for the development of durable defence against plant pathogens and pests. Increasingly accessible nucleic acid sequencing technologies, together with genome editing and transgenic approaches, offer considerable potential for durable, broad-spectrum disease resistance development.
Whole-genome and transcriptome analyses, as widely employed in the presented papers, are advancing the characterization of genes and pathways involved in compatible and incompatible host—pathogen interactions, consolidating knowledge on host receptors and pathogen recognition, signalling and downstream defence molecules. As genome sequencing of pathogen isolates is becoming increasingly accessible, greater understanding of genome adaptation will also probably be achieved, facilitating control of emerging pathogens Misra and Chaturvedi, Bioinformatics-based identification of core pathogen effector-coding genes is also a promising route for identifying cognate activated host R gene alleles in the plant genepool Dangl et al.
Given the recently developed genome editing methods, such as clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeat CRISPR Gaj et al. Although breeding for disease resistance is an important component of crop improvement programmes, a number of restraints exist. Conventional breeding methods for resistance introgression into commercial cultivars is typically limited to those crop species with available R -genes in germplasm material. Disease resistance may also be short-lived in monoculture cropping systems that carry only single R genes, with evolving pathogen populations often able to overcome host resistance.
As progress is made with R gene structure and function determination, however, possibilities emerge for their pyramiding in crops, potentially accelerating durable disease resistance development Huang et al. In such strategies, several alleles of an R -gene can be introgressed into a single crop cultivar, such that pathogens must undergo multiple mutations or recombinations in Avr genes to overcome the disease resistance.
Spatio-temporal planting of different resistant cultivars can also be appropriate where multiple resistance alleles would negatively affect agronomic characteristics. In addition to biotic stresses, abiotic stresses have a major negative influence on global agricultural production. Climate change and associated temperature rises have also been shown to increase geographic distribution and reproductive potential of pathogens. Much ongoing research on individual stresses in plants is providing evidence for overlap in receptors, signalling pathways and responses, not only between different biotic stresses, but also between biotic and abiotic stresses.
The characterization of hub genes and common components in multiple stress resistance offers considerable potential for the development of multiple stress-resistant crop cultivars, appropriate for sustainable agricultural practices. Our thanks also go to the authors who contributed their manuscripts for publication in the Special Issue.
Lastly, we are very grateful for the important input provided by all the hard-working reviewers who refereed the submitted manuscripts. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Ann Bot v. Published online Mar